should not exist. Boyd, On Modeling Cultural Evolution: Why replicators are not necessary for cultural evolution. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare. Indeed, we humans seem to care enormously about what others think about. This likely has a genetic origin. The most explicit models of cultural evolution show that group selection is an exceptionally strong force in human cultural evolution, even to the point of qualifying as a major evolutionary transition 7-9 _ Abbott,., Abe,., Alcock,.,.,.
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2nd ed1983, Belmont, CA: PWS Publishers. From its beginning, cultural evolutionists have sought to formalize human learning processes, and then ask what happens in the long-run if we have a population of human learners who are interacting with each other. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35-57. Instead, they are traits that are propagated culturally, such as religious beliefs, how to start a this i believe essay social norms, and forms of political organization. The first misconception is his claim that it is always a mistake to think of function or design at the level of groups. Cultural group selection and reputation systems are in fact complementary in addressing the problem of cooperation, not alternatives. When a vast range of outcomes are consistent with self-interest, any real account of human behavior must specify what gives rise to the norms that are actually observedan equilibrium selection mechanism in the jargon of evolutionary game theory. I think we need to turn to social psychology for some of the explanation.
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